Effects of Temperature on PM2.5 Concentrations in
Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India

Effects of Temperature on PM2.5 Concentrations in
Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India

Rayees Ahmad Ganaie , R. M. Mishra , Shama Ansari , Sartaj A Ganie , Urba Ramzan

1School of Environmental Biology Awadash Pratap Singh University University Rewa, 486003 India

2Division of Environmental Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, India

3Department of Environmental Science, SP College Srinagar, Jammu, and Kashmir, India

Corresponding Author Email: sartajsultan@gmail.com

DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.53709/CHE.2020.v01i01.040


The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) problem has appealed much scientific and public attention, due to its effects on, human health, visibility, and global climate. There are three factors that have an important effect on PM2.5 mass concentration: domestic pollutant emission sources, external sources outside of the country, and meteorological conditions. Rewa Madhya Pradesh is a city in the north-eastern part of Madhya Pradesh state in India. The district derives its name from the town of Rewa, the district headquarters, which is another name for the Narmada River. The city lies about 420 kilometers (261 mi) northeast of the state capital Bhopal and 130 kilometers (81 mi) south of the city of Allahabad which is an ideal location to study pollutants from long-range transport and the correlation between PM2.5 and meteorological conditions. In this paper, PM2.5 concentration data and meteorological data were obtained for six months (June-Nov) 2019 at four sites. The spatial distribution depicts that the part of the study area has the most serious PM2.5 pollution. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological data showed that temperature and wind and a negative, and humidity had a positive, correlation with PM2.5.


correlation analysis, meteorological variables, PM2.5

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With the development of economics in the world, the air pollution problem has become more and more serious in recent years, especially the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) problem [1–3]. PM2.5 is fine particle matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm. Due to the effects on visibility, human health, and global climate, PM2.5 has attracted much scientific and public attention [4–6] Aerosol particles have been widely studied in the last ten years due to their potential health impact and demand for their control. Various studies have indicated that fine aerosol particles have the strongest health effects [7]. In addition, aerosol particles are of great importance in affecting atmospheric radiation, cloud formation, atmospheric photochemical reactions, and light extinction effects that influence global weather changes [8,9]. The present trends for particulate monitoring strategies tend to monitor PM2.5 and PM10 because of the direct relationship with health effects and the prevention of natural particulate interference [10] Industrial activities with high primary particulate emissions, such as coal, cement, concrete, or mining, have a significant impact on air quality due to their intensive particulate emissions in the 2.5–10 μm range. The continued use of wood and coal for home heating and cooking are unavoidable issues in developing countries [11–15], which are also contributing to PM2.5 emissions. Each country has different standards for PM2.5 mass concentration. To meet the standard for PM2.5, it is desirable to find the factors affecting PM2.5 concentration [16]. There are three factors that can make an important effect on the PM2.5 mass concentration, including domestic pollutants emission sources, external sources outside of the country, and the meteorological conditions. In Japan, the very stringent restrictions on emission sources have resulted in the low level of PM2.5 mass concentration. Therefore, the pollutants from long range transport play an important role on the PM2.5 concentration. As shown by previous studies, meteorological conditions can largely diffuse, dilute, and accumulate pollutants [17]; thus, PM2.5 mass concentration is mainly due to meteorological. Atmospheric aerosols play important role in air quality and global climate change. Globally, the surface level concentrations of aerosols have increased significantly over the last 150 years. Recently, the increasing trends of aerosols particularly in the developing countries are related mainly to the rapid urbanization, growth of industries, increase in vehicles and population, etc. Anthropogenic activities have resulted in higher concentrations of aerosols in most of the megacities of Asia. Aerosols directly impact the radiation budget of the atmosphere via the scattering and absorption processes. However, in the Indian subcontinent, it is not just Delhi, but even in small and medium towns, the quality of air is changing rapidly. Out of the 23 mega cities, Delhi is the most polluted followed by Mumbai, Calcutta, Bangalore, Chennai, Kanpur, Ahmedabad, and Nagpur. Historically, the level of total suspended particulate (TSP) levels in a number of South Asian cities has been high (CPCB) Large cities in India appear to have very high concentrations of fine particles (World Bank, 2004).


Study area Rewa, Madhya Pradesh is a city in the north-eastern part of Madhya Pradesh state in India. The district derives its name from the town of Rewa, the district headquarters, which is another name for the Narmada River It is the administrative centre of Rewa District and Rewa Division. The city lies about 420 kilometres (261 mi) northeast of the state capital Bhopal and 130 kilometres (81 mi) south of the city of Climate Rewa has a humid subtropical climate, with cold, misty winters, hot summer and a humid monsoon season. Summers start in late March and go on till mid-June, the average temperature is around 30 °C (86 °F), with the peak of summer in May, when the highs regularly exceed 45 °C (104 °F). The monsoon starts in late June and ends in late September. These months see about 40 inches (1025 mm) of precipitation. The average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the humidity is quite high. Temperatures rise again up to late October when winter starts, which lasts up to early March. Winters in Rewa are cold and misty with average temperatures around 15 °C (58 °F) and little rain. The winter peaks in January when temperatures may drop close to freezing on some nights. The total annual rainfall is about 1128 mm (44 inches). The four different sites which were under study Sirmor chowk , New bus stand, hospital chowk and the University campus.

Sampling Procedure

Sampling was carried out consecutively during five months (June -Oct 2019). The sampling was done for twenty-four (08) hours at each site in each month. Air quality parameter such as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) which is also known as PM2.5 was monitored by using Respirable Dust Sampler (HVS). Glass fiber filter paper, popularly known as GF/A filter paper was used for the determination of RSPM. Apparatus and Material High-Volume Air Sampler The high-volume air sampler is the workhorse of air sampling and monitoring. The sampler uses a continuous-duty blower to suck in an air stream. When fitted with a particle size classifier, it separates particles greater than 2.5µm size from the air stream. The air stream is then passed through a filter paper to collect particles lesser than 2.5µm in size (PM2.5). Gravimetric measurements yield values of suspended particulate matter (SPM), as the sum of the two fractions, and PM2.5 the material retained on the filter paper. The filter paper can be used to determine benzene-soluble organics, metals, such as Pb, Cd, etc., fluorides, radioactive materials, and biologically active non-metals, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium.

Apparatus Required

For Measurement Of Concentration Of PM2.5 a. Electronic microbalance with a minimum resolution of 0.001 mg and precision of ± 0.001 mg, supplied with a balance pan. The microbalance must be positioned on a vibration-damping balance support table. Non-serrated forceps for handling filters.

b. Non-metallic, non-serrated forceps for handling weights.

c. Digital timer/stopwatch.

d. Filter (47 mm): Teflon membrane, 46.2 mm effective diameter with polypropylene support ring or filters as recommended by FRM / FEM sampler manufacturer. e. Filter support cassettes and covers f. Filter equilibration racks g. Relative Humidity /Temperature recorder h. Powder-free vinyl gloves i. Plastic filters containers (Filter Cassette) j. Zip-lock plastic bags, 6”x 9”. k. Disposable laboratory wipes. l. Filter equilibration cabinets. m. Impactor oil/grease RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The 8-hour PM2.5 concentration data were collected during a five-month period from June 03, 2019 to Oct 30, 2016 at the four sites of district Rewa (University campus, Sirmor chowk , New Bus stand, Hospital chowk) were considered in the analysis. The raw data collected during these months is presented in table 3.1. which shows the Date of sample , volume(m3 ) of air passed through the sampler (HVS), Timer (Hour), Initial Weight (gm), Final Weight(gm) and LPM (Litre per minute). The mean value of 8 hour PM2.5 concentrations at all the four sites site was 75.08 µg/m3 larger than the 24-hour standard (60 µg/m3). The maximum 8 hour value was equal to 135.54µg/m3 on july, 6 2019 at sirmor chowk while the minimum value was 15.06 µg/m3 at university campus on Oct 10 2019 . The high concentration of PM 2.5 at the sirmor chowk was due to high traffic movement Concentrations of PM are strongly influenced by meteorology, but there has been little research on how concentrations depend on individual meteorological parameters. PM is comprised of many different species, and meteorology can have complex effects on total PM concentrations due to its impacts on individual species. Aerosol sulfate concentrations depend on the temperature-dependent oxidation of SO2 in both the gas and aqueous (cloud) phases . The concentrations of oxidants\ that react with SO2 are also dependent on temperature and sunlight intensity. The mixing and dilution influence PM concentrations, so wind speed and mixing height are expected to have an impact as well. The PM2.5 data and meteorological data were collected for the months of June-Oct 2019. The Pearson Coefficient correlation analysis were conducted between PM2.5 values and meteorological variables. For meteorological variables which include temperature, humidity and wind speed. The values of 08 hr during the sampling period , were used. This was done because PM2.5 values have the largest range in one day, which allowed for identifying the correlations with meteorological variables. MS EXCEL is a widely used program for statistical analysis. The Pearson correlation analysis was conducted in MS EXCEL to analyze the correlation between meteorological factors: temperature, humidity, and wind speed. The temperature is crucial to determine PM2.5 concentrations that result from pollutants by long-range transport, industries, biomass burning etc. Pohjola et al. (2011) has implied that the PM2.5 concentrations are mostly of regionally- and long-range transported origin. The weighted PM2.5 values by wind speed were used to distinguish which direction brings the most pollutants from outside of the study area. The temperature is one of the important meteorological parameter which affect the PM2.5 concentration. The average temperature for the sampling period was observed 38.77 0 C. The temperature shows positive correlation with PM 2.5 with temperature in Rewa (M.P) having a Pearson value of 0.22617. i.e., with the increase in the temperature the concentration of PM2.5 is Increasing. This mainly occurs because of temperature affects the formation of particles thus high temperature can promote photochemical reactions.


The main focus of this work is the Assessment of Pm 2.5 in the ambient atmosphere, the relationship between the PM2.5 concentrations, and meteorological parameters in the ambient atmosphere of Rewa, (M.P). The data were collected at four sites of Rewa district of M.P for a period of five months (June-oct). PM 2.5 concentration along with its correlation with other meteorological parameters like temperature wind speed and humidity was observed. The average concentration of particulate matter (pm 2.5) during the analysis period was 75.08 g/mµ3. Based on the results of the data analysis conducted within the limits of this work the following conclusions can be made. The 24 hour concentration level of PM2.5 at the three of the four sampling sites exceeds the Annual National Ambient Air Quality Standards for pm 2.5 (60 µg/m3 ) expect at the university campus (55.78 µg/m).Amoung all four sampling sites the concentration of pm2.5 was higest at Sirmoh chowk(101.74µg/m) followed Hospital chowk(71.76 µg/m), New Bus Adda, (60.04µg/m) university campus (55.76 µg/m respectively. Particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration was correlated with other meteorological parameter like Temperature, by using Pearson correlation the result showed that PM2.5 concentration was positively correlated temperature having Pearson coefficient -0.38006, . Based on the results it was found with the increase in temperature concentration of pm 2.5 increases vice versa.


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