Influence of Sulphur Levels on Productivity and Quality of Varieties of Mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss)

Influence of Sulphur Levels on Productivity and Quality of Varieties of Mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss)

Arpit Singh11* , Arvind Singh2 , A.P. Singh3

1Deptt.of Agronomy, A. N.D.U.A.T, Fiazabad, UP, India

2Department K.V.K. Sant Kabir Nagar, A.N.D.U.A.T Kumarganj, Ayodhya, UP, India

3Department of Vegetable Science, A N.D.U.A.T Fiazabad, UP, India

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A field experiment was conducted at Farmers field in Sant Kabir Nagar (Uttar Pradesh) during the rabi of 2019-20. Twelve treatments comprised of four levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40, and 60 kg S ha-1) and three varieties (Varuna, Vardan and Ashirwad) were arranged in randomized block design with three replication. The soil of experimental field was silty loam in texture slight alkaline in reaction having low organic carbon and available nitrogen and medium in phosphorus and high in potash. The crop recorded normal recommended cultural and plant protection measures. Application of 60 kg S ha-1 produced significantly higher values of plant, high primary and secondary branches plant-1, leaf area index, number of siliqua plant-1, length of siliqua, and number of seeds siliqua-1, harvest index and oil content. However, dry matter accumulation plant-1, 1000-seeds weight, biological yield, seed yield, stover yield and protein content was significantly increased with increasing dose of sulphur upto 40 kg ha-1.


Brassica juncea, Coss, Czern, Mustard, productivity, quality, seed yield, Sulphur

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Improved plant types play an important role in raising the seed yield of the crops. Development of high yielding varieties of mustard has been one of the major concerns of the scientists because use of the improved varieties alone accounts for 15-20 per cent increase in productivity. This is probably because of their altered morphology which results into efficient utilization of water, nutrients and solar radiation.  In oilseed, sulphur plays a vital role in quality, production and plays an important role in protein synthesis of essential amino acids like cysteine and methionine. However, the information regarding optimum dose of sulphur and its influence on mustard is necessary to augment the productivity and quality of Indian mustard. Sulphur levels significant influenced the seed and stover yield of mustard [1]. The chemical fertilizers being used for supplementing the major nutrient are generally either deficient or low in sulphur content. The present production is not adequate to meet the edible oil requirement of our fast growing population. A wide gap exists between the demand and supply resulting into a large scale import of fats and oils at the expense of valuable foreign exchange rapeseed-mustard is the most important rabi oilseed crop of Northern India grown mainly for edible oil requirement of our fast growing population, the efforts should be made to increase the production of oilseed crops. Rapeseed-mustard gives good response to sulphur. Keeping above facts in view the present investigation entitled Influence of sulphur levels on productivity and quality of varieties of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss]” was undertaken.


An investigation was carried out during the winter (rabi) season of 2019-20 and  at Farmers field in Sant Kabir Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh. The soil was siltloam with 8.10 pH 0.38 organic carbon, 0.29 EC, available N (142 kg/ha), P (15.5 kg/ha), S (6.20 kg/ha) and medium in K (245.0 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three varieties (Varuna , Ashirwad and Vardan) and four sulphur levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1). Thus twelve treatment combinations comprises with  varieties and sulphur levels were replicated randomly three times. The crop was fertilized with a uniform dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium @ 120kg, 60kg and 40 kg ha-1, respectively. Urea DAPS and murate of potash were used as the source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The specific quantity of fertilizer was calculated on the basis of gross plot size. Sulphur was applied as per treatment through elemental sulphur. The crop was sown on dated Nov.10th, 2019 using 6 kg seed ha-1 in row 30cm apart at a depth of 2-3 cm in furrows.

Results and Discussion

Performance of varieties

Growth characters

Almost all the growth characters viz., plant height, primary and secondary branches plant-1, leaf area index and dry matter production were significantly higher with variety Varuna as compared to Ashirwad and Vardan at all the growth stages. This may be due to genetically behavior of the plant which showed greater photosynthetic efficacy and its translocation to growing points which results faster growth and development [2] reported that growth parameters such as plant height, primary and secondary branches per plant of Varuna were significantly higher than Ashirwad.

Table-1: Influence of sulphur levels and varieties on growth attributes of mustard

Yield contributing characters and yield

            The maximum values of all the yield attributes such as siliqua plant-1, siliqua length, seed per siliqua, yield per plant and 1000-seed weight were significantly higher with variety Varuna as compare to Ashirwad and Vardan. It might be due to increase the direct involvement of number of branches, consequent effect of fertilization and greatly influenced by the compatibility of the pollen grains. Superiority of varieties on number of seeds siliqua-1 may be due to greater production of pollen grains and their efficient use of fertilization. Varieties differences in Indian mustard in respect to yield attributes were also observed by [3-4]. Yield is the result of co-ordinated inters play of growth and development traits. Cumulative response of growth and yield attributes to determine the yield. Seed and stover yield were highly responded to varieties. The maximum seed and stover yield were recorded in Varuna and it was mainly due to enhanced rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. The higher stover yield and harvest index was due to difference in varieties that is better partitioning of photosynthates towards seed leading to more seed yield vis-a-vis harvest index. The varietal differences in Indian mustard with respect to seed and stover yield and harvest index were also observed by [5-6] reported that among Indian mustard varieties Ashirwad and Varuna gave significantly higher seed yield.

Effect of Sulphur

Growth Characters

            Growth is measured in terms of dry matter accumulation which manifested through morphological characters including plant height, leaf area index and number of branches etc.             Sulphur levels had significant effect on plant height at all the stages except 30 DAS. Plant height increased successively with increasing the sulphur levels up to 60 kg ha-1. Significantly higher plant height was recorded less than 60 kg S ha-1 which was at par with 40 kg S ha-1 and significantly superior over 20 kg S and control at all the crop growth stages. The increase in plant height due to adequate availability of sulphur attributes to better nutritional environment for plant growth at active vegetative stage as a result of enhancement in cell multiplications, cell elongation and cell expression in the plant body which ultimately increased the height of plant. The results of present investigation are also in agreement with the findings of [7-8]. The leaf area index increased significantly with increase in dose of sulphur up to 60 kg ha-1 at 60 and 90 DAS stages of mustard crop, though the differences between two consecutive levels were not significant. This might be due to direct involvement of sulphur in cell enlargement, cell division and cell elongation. Similar results have also been found [9-10]. The dry matter accumulation plant-1 increased significantly with increase in dose of sulphur up to 60 kg ha-1 at 60, 90 DAS and at harvest stages of mustard crop, which was at par with 40 kg S ha-1 and significantly superior over remaining doses of sulphur at all the stages of crop growth. Dry matter production successively increased till maturity due to favourable effect of sulphur on the growth and development of plants. Increase in number of primary and secondary branches plant-1, plant height and leaf area index is directly responsible for increasing the dry matter accumulation in plants at higher levels of sulphur. [11] also reported the similar results. The number of primary branches per plant increased with increasing levels of sulphur, recording maximum number of primary branches plant-1 at 60 kg S ha-1, at all the stages. Though it was found significantly superior over 0 and 20 kg S ha-1 but at par with 40 kg S ha-1. This might be due to the facts that the sulphur is directly involved in multiplication, elongation and expansion of cells which ultimately produced the more number of branches plant-1 where adequate supply of sulphur was done with higher dose of sulphur in comparison to sulphur deficient plants. The results are in conformity with those of [12-14].

Table-2: Influence of sulphur levels and varieties on yield attributes and yield of mustard

Yield contributing characters and yield

            All the yield attributes viz., siliquae plant-1, siliqua length and seeds siliqua-1 increased with increasing in dose of sulphur upto 40 kg S ha-1 which was non significantly superior over remaining dose of sulphur. Increase in value of these yield contributing characters with higher dose of sulphur was due to facts that the adequate sulphur was available during the entire period of crop growth for better vegetative growth and development of mustard plants. The beneficial effects have been also reported by [15]. The variation in biological yield, seed yield and stoves yield are the results of variation in various growth and yield contributing characters and hence productivity of mustard is collectively determined by vagueness in the vegetative growth and increase in value of various yield attributes. The higher number of siliqua plant-1, length of siliqua, number of seed siliqua-1 and 1000-seed weight resulted into higher seed yield of mustard. The biological yield, seed yield and stover yield of mustard were significantly increased with increasing dose of sulphur upto 40 kg S ha-1 which was at par with 60 kg S ha-1 and significantly superior over control and 20 kg S ha-1. The increase in seed yield under adequate sulphur supply might be ascribed mainly due to the combined effect of higher number of siliqua plant-1, more number of seeds siliqua-1 and higher 1000-seed weight, which was result of better translocation of photosynthetic from source to sink. Sulphur also stimulates the seed setting seed formation and oil synthesis in the seed of mustard and it increases the biological, seed, stover yield and harvest index of mustard. [16-17] also reported the similar results. Seed and stover yield increased significantly with increasing in levels of sulphur. The maximum seed and stover yield was obtained at highest dose of 60 kg ha-1 sulphur significant increase over unfertilized control. Similar results have been also obtained by [18].


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