Rapid roving a varietal survey for Pigeonpea Phytopthora wilt in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka, India

Rapid roving a varietal survey for Pigeonpea Phytopthora wilt in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka, India

Zaheer Ahamed B* , Raju G. Teggelli , Shreenivas B. V , Yusufali A. N , Manjunath Patil , D. H. Patil

ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi - 585 101, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India

Corresponding Author Email: zaheervitla@gmail.com

DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.53709/ CHE.2020.v01i01.026


The climatic variability affects the crop growth stages and to assess the severity of the wet wilt problem, survey for the wilt disease was undertaken in Kharif 2018-19 at different villages of Kalaburagi district of Karnataka. The information was collected reveals that incidence of wilt ranged from 1 to 15 per cent and mean incidence of 6.0 per cent were recorded. Among the variety cultivated were checked for the disease incidence, the Local Gulyal, Double moong, Katti beeja are shown symptoms of phytopthora wilt and stem canker disease. These all the varieties were inspected under the rainfed situations, wherever the crop and soil zone wet situations the incidence of wilt was observed. The high incidence is noticed in Sedam and Chittapur taluks 3 to14 and 3 to 15 ranges respectively and Jewargi and Aland taluk the incidence varied from 2 to 9 and 2 to 11% range respectively.


Incidence, kharif, Pigeonpea, Wilt

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Arhar also called Pigeonpea; Cajanus cajan (L) Mill sp is the second most important pulse crop in India after chickpea. It has multiple uses and occupies an important place in the reviling farming systems in the country and vegetarian diet. It also plays an important role in sustainable agriculture by enriching the soil through biological nitrogen fixation along with deep root system of this crop which makes it more suitable for its cultivation under rainfed conditions. Kalaburagi district occupies 3.75 lakh hectares of land with average productivity of 560 kg ha-1 of pigeon pea [1]. In order to make the nation self-sufficient in pulses productivity levels of pulses need to be increased substantially from 560 kg ha-1 to 1,200 kg ha-1 by 2020. Faulty sowing practices, improper crop geometry, avoid use of biofertilizers, Trichoderma, other intercultural operations and climatic variability’s are predominant reasons for limiting the potential yield of pigeon pea major cause of low productivity is the losses due to disease. Among disease, wilt and sterility mosaic disease are important. Recent surveys have indicated that major losses in the Pigeonpea are due to wilts and losses varying from 0.2 to 100 per cent have been estimated in India [6],[12].

Varietal spread of Pigeonpea TS-3R very popular in Kalaburagi district. The disease is known in India with description of wilt of pigeon pea by [12]. Though the disease goes unnoticed in early stages, the symptom of water soaked lesions, withering and drying drooping of leaves and finally death of few branches of entire plant are the conspicuous symptoms of manifested during flowering or grain development. If wilted plants are uprooted and longitudinally split, a clear black vascular browning is seen. Infection of plants in early stage leads to infection of roots, stem cortex and reaching up to vascular bundles where the pathogen multiplies and blocks water and nutrient flow to upper region which leads to yellowing and finally death of plant. In order to make in depth study of wilt in pigeon pea the present studies were undertaken.


A rapid roving survey on phytopthora wilt disease on pigeon pea was done in three villages of every taluk which includes Kalaburagi, Sedam, Chittapur, Aland, Jewargi, Chincholi taluks during late kharif of 2016. The type of seed used, seed protection measures, NPK and Micronutrient application system, disease management technique and yield enhancing information were collected during the spot visit. The wilt (%) incidence was noted in every location viz., the information was collected, tabulated and analyzed [18].

Table. 1. Incidence of Phytopthora wilt in kharif 2018-19 at Kalaburgi district

The per cent disease incidence of wilt was calculated by using the formula:


Thestandard format was prepared for collection of information during survey. For survey work, approximately 15 km distance, a plot was selected where five lines of 20 meter length were selected randomly and counts of the standing tagged plants were taken. Number of plants wilted, out of total plant stand was recorded. Additional information on name of variety, soil type and previous crop and cropping pattern were also noted. Results showed in Table (1) reveals that phytopthora wilt of Redgram incidence in different taluks of Kalaburagi district of Karnataka varied. The cloud days, low temperature and kharif season rain received in almost all black soil belts decides the incidence of disease. During the survey the cropping system, the variety used and time of sowing also taken into account. The disease incidence in Kalaburagi ranged for 2 to 13 and the TS-3R is very popularly cultivated whereas in Chincholi taluk the incidence ranged from 1 to 12%. The high incidence is noticed in Sedam and Chittapur taluk 3 to14 and 3 to 15 ranges. Jewargi and Aland taluk the incidence varied from 2 to 9 and 2 to 11 respectively.  Among the variety cultivated were checked for the disease incidence and Local Gulyal, Double moong, Katti beeja are shown symptoms phytopthora wilt and stem canker disease. These all the varieties were inspected under the rainfed situations, wherever the crop and soil zone wet situations the incidence of wilt was observed. The cropping system varied from location to location Redgram monocrop, Redgram with soybean, Redgram with sesamum and Redgram with Pearl millet Bajra cropping system is more observed during the survey [26]. Most of the farmers using the last years seeds without proper seed protection measures. Ecological, pathogenicity, survival and variation studies with respect to Fusarium varies with the temperature factors and type of host [16], [20] and [22]. The antagonistic nature of bio agent in Fusarium affected area performance varies with the soil micro flora [14], [15], [23] and [21]. The association of Fusarium in different cropping system varies with soil moisture [3], [19] and [17]. The identification criteria of Fusarium mainly through micro and macroconidia [4], [5] and [7]. Integrated management with bio agents and oil cakes the management technologies can be adopted in fields [9], [10] and [11].
The present observations on incidence of wilt (%) are in conformity with [24], [25], [6] and [13].
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