The Effect of Cropping System on Different Fertility Levels and Grain Yield of Wheat under Irrigated Conditions

The Effect of Cropping System on Different Fertility Levels and Grain Yield of Wheat under Irrigated Conditions

Raju Gupta1* , Traloki Singh2 , O.V.S Thenua3

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, R.S.Pura, SKUAST, Jammu, 181102 India

2ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), CAZRI, Bhuj, Kachchh Gujarat 370105 India

3Amar Singh PG College Lakhaoti Bulandshahar, Uttar Pradesh 203001, India

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A field experiment was conducted during 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Crop Research Farm of A.S. College, Lakhaoti (Bulandshahr) in Western Part of U.P. India to the effect of cropping system on different fertility levels and grain yield of wheat under irrigated conditions. The experiment consist of five planting systems/row ratios (i) Wheat (W), (ii) Linseed (L), (iii) Wheat + linseed (W1:L1), (iv) Wheat+ Linseed (W2:L1) and (v) Wheat + linseed (W4:L1) with four fertility levels (i) 5 t FYM / ha, (ii) 50% RD of NPK/ha (50:30:20 kg/ha), (iii) 75 % RD of NPK (75:45:30 kg/ ha) and (iv) 100 % RD of NPK (100:60:40 kg / ha). The wheat and linseed crops were planted in between, to give these row ratios. The 20 treatment combinations were tested in a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The crops were planted on November 6 in 2007-08 and November 9 in 2008-09 at Crop Research Farm of A.S. College, Lakhaoti (Bulandshahr) in the Western Part of U.P. India.


cropping system, fertility, grain, linseed, wheat

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1. Introduction

The growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land with a definite row arrangement or in a fixed ratio is call inter cropping. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources or ecological processes that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop. In India intercropping and mixed cropping systems have been practiced for long for sustained production and minimization of risk. The continuous adoption of these practices by Indian farmers is sufficient to vindicate their importance. Practice of intercropping is as old as agriculture but the basic concept of intercropping developed recently is the raising of two or more crops together in such a way as to exploit the resources more efficiently than either of them raised separately, greater yield stability is provided by this practice under aberrant weather conditions and epidemic of diseases and pests, which is certainly of great significance to poorer subsistence farmers in reducing the risk involved in sole crops. Wheat and linseeds are generally grown in a sole stand but in areas where annual precipitation is low and uncertain and soils shallow and less retentive, these crops are raised in mixed stand. The seeds are mixed in a desired proportion and sown broadcast or the mixture in lines or each crop planted pure in separate lines in a definite row ratio (intercrop). This provided insurance against total crop failures in extremely dry period and fairly high yields in good rainfall period. The imbalance use of nutrients is widely relevant in crops with very high use of N and less use of P and negligible use of K fertilizers. Wheat and linseed crops grown in intercrop with high yielding genotypes are highly nutrient responsive and imbalance and inadequate use of nutrient use efficiency. The nutrient requirement of oil seeds, in general, is high for all the nutrients and needs to be supplied in adequate for higher yields. The growth, yield and yield contributing characters of crop raised in sole or in mixed (intercrop) stands were influenced by intra or inter-plant competition. The change in plant number (or seed rate) per hectare (Aggarwal et al. 1986). Researches done earlier on planting systems were limited to study effect of row spacing and row ratios of wheat and other crop raised, on growth and yield of wheat crop in the former and on both crops in the latter. In both series, fertilizer was applied to the base crop (wheat) alone and no consideration was given for nutrient needs of intercrop. The results, in general, showed that change in row spacing did not change yield of irrigated wheat (Sharma et al. 1971). Kumar et al. (2001) reported that application of 100 kg N/ha and 60 kg P2O5 /ha produced significantly taller plants and ears / m row length over their low doses. However, the response of dry matter accumulation / m row length was significant up to 120 kg N and 40 kg P2O5 / ha .

2. Methods and Materials

A field experiment was conducted during two rabi seasons in 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Crop Research Farm of A.S. College, Lakhaoti (Bulandshahr) in western part of U.P. India. The effect of cropping system on different fertility levels and grain yield of wheat under irrigated condition. The soil was well-levelled, sandy loam in texture and slightly alkaline in reaction (pH 7.4) (Piper, 1967). It analyzed low both in organic carbon (0.36%) and total nitrogen (0.035%) (Jackson, 1973). It was medium in available phosphorus (13.68 kg/ha) (Olsen, 1954) and potash (162.6 kg/ha) (Jackson, 1973). It has semi-arid and sub-tropical climate characterized by hot-dry summers and cold winters. The total annual rainfall received is 650 mm, of which 548 mm (84%) is received between June and September and the remaining 102 mm between October and May. The sowing was done on 6 November in 2007 and on 9 November in 2008. The sowing in both seasons was done when the mean daily temperature was around 210C. The wheat was sown at the seed rate of 100 kg/ha and for linseed 10 kg seed per hectare was used. The sowing was done in furrows opened with manually operated hand plough and the seed dropped through the iron seed spout (pora) attached to the plough. The seed was placed about 5-6 cm deep and the furrows kept open. The observations were taken at 30 days interval after the emergence of seedlings. The sampled plants were also used for recording observations on pre-harvest as well as post-harvest studies on various characters mentioned below. The means were worked out and the values represented as the averages for the characters studied. The height of 5 plants chosen was measured (cm) from ground surface to the tip of the main shoot. The average was calculated and expressed as height/plant (cm). The number of tillers per running meter row length of wheat and branches of linseed was counted from two places at random. The average were calculated and expressed as number of tillers/branches per metre row length.  The ear bearing tillers of the sampled plants were counted, its number recorded and expressed as effective tillers per metre and branches per plant. The ear length of the five sampled plants was measured and expressed as ear length (cm/plant). All the ears and capsules on the sampled plants were removing. Since the number was very large, a representative sample of 25 ears/capsules was selected from the sampled plant. It was threshed, cleaned and grain number counted. The average was worked out and expressed as grains/ear and grains/capsules. The weight of grain of wheat and seed of linseed obtained from each treatment (net plot) after threshing was weighed and the weight expressed as yield, q/ha. The weight of stover/straw was recorded for each treatment. This was done by deducting the weight of grain/seed (wheat/linseed) from the total produce after threshing and the weight expressed as straw/ stover yield, q/ha.  The samples of grain, leaves and straw/stalk were drawn from each treatment after oven drying. The samples were ground, except the grain of linseed, to 20 meshes and analyzed of N, P and K content. Linseed grain was weighed and used for analysis as such.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Yield components

            The data recorded on ear length (cm), number of ear/plant, weight of ears and grains/plant (g), number of spikelets and grains/ear and test weight (g) have been set out in Table 1. An examination of data (Table 1) indicated that crop in wheat reduced the growth and development of the yield components, significantly. However, the extent of reduction varied from row ratios of wheat and linseed. The lowest values of these characters were noted under W1L1 cropping system in both the years. Pure wheat produced highest ears/plant and W1:L1 system lowest. The number of ears / plant increased in W2:L1 system and still more in W4:L1 over W1:L1 systems. The trend of results on grain weight/plant was similar to that observed in ear number/plant. Effect of cropping system on ear weight, ear length and grains/ear was quite different. A sharp decline compared to the pure crop was observed in ear weight in W4:L1 system in both the seasons. Grains/ear and test weight were higher in pure crop system and reduced significantly in, W1:L1 systems. The similar results have also been reported by Sah, D. Bohara, J.S. and Shukla, D.N. (2006).The systems were statistically at par with respect to yield attributes. The W4L1 cropping system was statistically at par with pure crop with respect to most of the yield components.

Table 1: Effect of fertility levels on dry matter production / 25 cm row length (g) of Wheat

Fertilizer application resulted significantly higher values of all yield components.  Higher fertility level (100%NPK) did not affect significantly some yield attributes over 75 %NPK level. The lower values of these yield attributes, in general, were recorded at 5 t FYM / ha addition in both crop seasons. Application of fertilizers at higher levels (75 and 100% NPK) increased the weight of grains per ear, and ear length significantly over level (50% NPK) of fertilizers in both crop seasons. The test weight also improved with increasing fertility levels in both crop seasons and maximum values were noted under 100% NPK (100 kg: 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ ha).

Table 2: Effect of fertility levels on yield attributing characters of wheat

3.2. Yield, harvest index and seed quality

            An examination of the data in Table 2 revealed that all the characters studied indicated higher values in 2007-08 than in 2008-09. Pure wheat produced maximum grain and straw yields, harvest index and protein yield and lowest in W1:L1 system. W4:L1 system gave less value of these parameters comparable to pure crop of wheat; in both crop seasons. The values obtained in W2:L1 system was in between W1:L1 and W4:L1 systems. The differences in grain and straw yields between W1:L1 and W2:L1 and W2:L1 and W4:L1 systems were significant in both the seasons. The trend was different in harvest index. The harvest index in W1:L1 and W2:L1 systems in both the years was similar and no differences was recorded between W2:L1 and W4:L1 in 2007-08 but in 2008-09 W4:L1 system noticed higher harvest index than W2:L1.Application of fertilizers at higher levels had significant effect on grain and straw yield over lower levels in both crop seasons. A significant increase was recorded with increasing doses of fertilizers on grain and straw yield up to 100% NPK level in both crop seasons. The similar results were also reported by several worker Singh, R.P. and Seth, J. (1976). There was a consistent and significant increase in harvest index with increasing fertility levels. The higher levels of fertility (75 and 100%NPK) levels proved significantly superior over NPK and 5 t FYM/ha treatments in both the years with respect to content and yield of protein. The maximum and minimum values of protein percentage and protein yield were recorded under 100% NPK and 5 t FYM / ha, respectively.

3.3. Nutrient Uptake

            The uptake of N, P and K (kg/ha) in wheat grain and straw, were calculated in both the years. The uptake of nutrients in grain and straw was more in 2007-08 than in 2008-09. The uptake of N and P by grain was higher than that of straw, while reverse was true for potassium uptake. Pure wheat crop recorded maximum uptake and lowest in W1:L1 system. In W4:L1 system, the uptake of nutrients this was comparable to pure crop. The similar results were also reported by Singh, S. (2001).The uptake in W2:L1 system was in between W1:L1 and W4:L1 systems.

The fertilizer application indicated significant increase in the uptake (grain and straw) of N, P and K in both the seasons. Increasing rates of NPK fertilizers increased the uptake of N, P and K in grain and straw in both the years. The maximum values of NPK uptake by grain and straw were recorded with 100%NPK level during both the year of study. The uptake of these nutrients by the crop under 75 and 100% NPK levels was significantly more than 50% NPK level and 5 t FYM/ ha. The similar results have also been reported by Chandra Mohan, M., Reddy, G.H.S., Reddy, T.B., Reddy, M.N. and Murthy, B.T.S. (1977).The variations between 75 and 100% NPK were also significant in respect of uptake of these three nutrients in both crop seasons.

Table 3: Effect of cropping systems and fertilizer levels on uptake of nutrients (kg / ha) by wheat grain and straw

4. References

  1. Aggarwal, P.K., Singh, A.K., Chaturvedi, G.S. and Singh, S.K. (1986) Performance of wheat and triticale cultivars in a variable soil-water environment II. Evapotranspiration. WUE, Harvest index and grain yield. Field Crop Res. 13 (4): 301-315.
  2. Chandra Mohan, M., Reddy, G.H.S., Reddy, T.B., Reddy, M.N. and Murthy, B.T.S. (1977) Studies on the effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on wheat. Indian J. Agron. 22 (4): 235-239.
  3. Jackson, M.L. (1973) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood, cliffs, USA. pp. 59-174
  4. Olsen, S.R. (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bi-carbonates. USDA Circ. No. 939, Washinton.
  5. Piper, C.S. (1967) Soil and Plant Analysis. Academic Press, New York. pp. 90-120.
  6. Richards, L.A. (1947) Pressure membrane apparatus construction and use. Agricultural Engineering. 28 (1): 451-454.
  7. Sah, D. Bohara, J.S. and Shukla, D.N. (2006) Effect of N, P and S, on growth attributes of and nutrients uptake by Indian mustrad (Brassica junceaL.Czern and Coss. Crop Res.31 (1): 52-55.
  8. Singh, R.P. and Seth, J. (1976) Wheat protein, grain yield and its attributes as influenced by nitrogen through soil and foliar application. Indian J. agric. Sci. 46 (1): 1-5.
  9. Singh, S. (2001) Effect   of applied N,P, K and Mn on yield and nutrients uptake by wheat and on available nutrients in soil . Ann. Pl. Soil Res. 3 (2): 283-285.